Variable-air-volume (VAV) systems with air terminal units have been used extensively in commercial and institutional buildings in the United States for decades. Unfortunately, optimized design of a VAV system with terminal heat is difficult at best because of limitations inherent in VAV and complications posed by design standards and regulations. One new approach involves the pairing of a dedicated outdoor-air system (DOAS) with a variable-refrigerant-flow (VRF) system. By separating the ...

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