In a pumping system, the objective, in most cases, is to transfer a liquid (e.g., circulate liquid through a piped network as a means of heat transfer). Pressure is needed to make liquid flow at the required rate and overcome losses in the system. Losses are of two types: static head and friction head. Static head, in its simplest form, is the difference in height between the supply and the destination of a liquid or the pressure in a vessel into which a pump discharges, if it is ...

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