As the cost of energy continues to rise, it behooves chiller-plant owners and designers to consider the energy impacts of virtually everything under their control, including chilled-water piping. This article will discuss the energy consumption of the three basic configurations of chilled-water piping currently in use: constant primary flow (CPF), constant primary flow/variable secondary flow (P/S), and variable primary flow (VPF). Also, it will discuss the attributes of equipment-room ...

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